Abscess – A localized collection of pus within a tissue or confined space.
Apicoectomy (also called root-end resection) – The surgical removal of the root tip and adherent soft tissues; may be performed in advance of root-end preparation for a root-end filling or as a definitive treatment.
Avulsion (exarticulation) – The complete separation of a tooth from its socket by traumatic injury; most commonly used in reference to dental injuries resulting from acute trauma.
Cracked tooth – A thin surface disruption of enamel and dentin, and possibly cementum (the surface of the tooth root), of unknown depth or extension.
Endodontics – The branch of dentistry concerned with the morphology, physiology, and pathology of the human dental pulp and periradicular (around the root) tissues. Its study and practice encompass the basic and clinical sciences including the biology of the normal pulp and the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the pulp and associated periradicular conditions.
Gutta-percha – Used as root filling material in endodontic procedures, it is the purified coagulated exudate from the Palaquium gutta tree, commonly called the “mazer wood” tree, of the Burma and Malay Archipelago.
Pulpitis – A clinical and histologic term denoting inflammation of the dental pulp; clinically described as reversible or irreversible and histologically described as acute, chronic or hyperplastic.
Resorption – A condition associated with either a physical or disease process resulting in a loss of dentin, cementum and/or bone.
Retreatment – A procedure to remove root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and filling the canals.
Root canal system – The space containing the dental pulp inside the crown and root of a tooth.
Root Fracture – A fracture that exists or extends into the root, to include dentin, cementum, and possibly pulpal space, which may progress to or from the enamel.
Longitudinal fracture – A root fracture extending in the axial plane within the tooth
Split root – a continuation of a crack or vertical root fracture whereby the fractured segments are isolated periodontal defect(s) or sinus tract; it may be radiographically evident.
Vertical root fracture – a fracture in the root whereby the fractured segments are incompletely separated; it may occur buccal-lingually (cheek to tongue) or mesial-distally (front to back of the mouth); it may cause an isolated periodontal defect(s) or sinus tract; it may be radiographically evident.
Horizontal Root Fracture (oblique root fracture) – Fracture due to traumatic injury confined to the root in a transverse plane separating the root into coronal and apical segments, with the fracture being confined either partially or completely within bone. The fracture can be buccal-lingually or obliquely oriented.